Associated Barber College of San Diego

The HistoryA History of Barbering: From Ancient Egypt to the Modern Barbershop

A History of Barbering: From Ancient Egypt to the Modern Barbershop

Barbering has been an integral part of human society for millennia, with its roots in ancient Egypt and continuing through to the modern-day barbershop. This comprehensive journey through the history of barbering will explore the evolution of this ancient practice and how it has shaped our modern grooming culture.

Ancient Egyptian Barbers

The history of barbering can be traced back over 5,000 years to ancient Egypt. Egyptians placed great importance on personal grooming and hygiene, and barbers were considered essential members of society. They were responsible for cutting and styling hair, as well as trimming beards and shaving the heads of priests, who were required to maintain a clean-shaven appearance. Ancient Egyptian barbers used bronze razors and other tools to perform their tasks, and their skills were often passed down through generations.

Roman Barbers

As the Roman Empire expanded, so did its grooming culture. Barber shops, known as “tonstrinae,” became popular meeting places for men to socialize, discuss politics, and groom. Roman barbers were called “tonsors,” and they provided services like cutting hair, trimming beards, and even offering cosmetic treatments. This period marked the beginning of barbering as a social experience, laying the foundation for the modern barbershop.


During the Middle Ages, barbers took on a new role: surgery. They became known as barber-surgeons, skilled in both grooming and minor surgical procedures. This was due to the establishment of trade guilds, which grouped together barbers and surgeons under one organization. Barber-surgeons performed tasks like bloodletting, tooth extractions, and even amputations, in addition to their traditional grooming services.

The iconic barber pole we see today is a remnant of this period. The red and white stripes symbolize blood and bandages, while the brass ball at the top represents a bloodletting bowl. The barber pole is a constant reminder of the long and complex history of barbering.

18th and 19th Century Barbers

Barbers continued to evolve in the 18th and 19th centuries, as trade guilds split, and barber-surgeons began to focus solely on grooming. They provided services such as hair cutting, shaving, beard styling, and even wig making. Barbershops became important community gathering spaces, where men could socialize, discuss politics, and receive grooming services. During this time, the barbershop quartet was also born, adding a musical element to the barbering experience.

20th Century Barbers and the Modern Barbershop

The 20th century saw significant changes to barbering, with the advent of safety razors, electric clippers, and new hair styling techniques. The barbershop continued to serve as a social hub for men, but its focus shifted more towards grooming and hair care. Barbershops began to incorporate more modern designs and amenities, making them more appealing and comfortable for clients.

As women’s hair salons gained popularity, barbershops experienced a decline in patronage. However, the 21st century has seen a resurgence in the appreciation for traditional barbershops and grooming culture. Men are once again seeking out barbers for specialized haircuts, beard trims, and shaves. Modern barbershops now offer a combination of classic techniques and contemporary styles, catering to a diverse clientele.

Barbershop etiquette has also evolved over time, with today’s barbers emphasizing professionalism, cleanliness, and customer satisfaction. Barber apprenticeships and training programs continue to be an essential part of the industry, ensuring that the next generation of barbers is skilled in the art of grooming.


The history of barbering is a rich and fascinating story that stretches back thousands of years. From ancient Egypt to the modern barbershop, barbering has evolved alongside human society, shaping our grooming culture, and providing a space for socialization, relaxation, and self-expression. As we continue to embrace the art of barbering, we pay homage to the long and storied history that has brought us to where we are today.